King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia
Title: Association Between COVID-19 Infection and Cardiac Biomarkers in Hospitalized Patients at a Tertiary Care Center
Objective: The effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the
cardiovascular system are well established. However, knowledge gaps in the
clinical implications of cardiac involvement in COVID-19 patients are yet to be
addressed. This study aimed to investigate acute cardiac injury (ACI) risk
factors and outcomes associated with COVID-19 infection with cardiac
Method: In this study, we included hospitalized patients between March
2020 and May 2022 with confirmed COVID- 19 infection and evidence of cardiac involvement.
Results: In total, 501 patients were included, of whom 396 (79%) had
evidence of ACI. The median troponin level was 25.8 (interquartile range [IQR]:
10.8-71). Patients with evidence of ACI were significantly more likely to have diabetes
mellitus (75% vs. 60%), cardiovascular disease (48% vs. 37%), chronic lung
disease (22.2% vs. 12.4%), and chronic kidney disease (32.3% vs. 16.2%).
Additionally, patients with ACI were significantly more likely to have
cardiomegaly (60.6% vs. 44.8%) and bilateral lobe infiltrates (77.8% vs. 60%)
on X-ray. Patients with ACI were significantly more likely to suffer from
complications such as cardiogenic shock (5.3% vs. 0%), pneumonia (80.1% vs.
65.7%), sepsis (24.2% vs. 9.5%), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (33.1%
vs. 8.6%). Patients with ACI were also significantly more likely to be admitted
to the intensive care unit (ICU) (57% vs. 26.7%) and significantly more likely
to die (38.1% vs. 11.4%). The results of the multivariate regression analysis
indicate that mortality was significantly higher in patients with elevated
troponin levels (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]:
Conclusion: In COVID-19 patients who exhibited cardiac injury, age, diabetes
mellitus, chronic lung disease, and chronic kidney disease were associated with
increased risk of ACI. Patients with these risk factors are at risk of severe
complications, such as ICU admission, sepsis, and death.
Mahmoud Bader is
a 4th year medical student at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for
Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Mahmoud has a strong interest in
cardiology and cardiothoracic surgery. He is working on multiple research
projects on topics ranging from cardiology, infectious disease, psychiatry,
neurology, and general surgery.