Cardiology is a field of medicine that deals with conditions affecting the heart, including congenital problems as well as acquired conditions including coronary artery disease and congenital heart failure. When English physician William Harvey published his studies on the anatomy and physiology of the heart and circulation in 1628, the subject of cardiology had its beginnings. Research findings in the field of cardiology has paved a way for a life changing treatment option for the cardiac disorders. Cardio problems are one of the leading causes of death in the world.
The heart (cardio) and blood vessels are referred to by the word cardiovascular (vascular). Arteries, arterioles, and capillaries are all parts of the cardiovascular system. The system that transports blood throughout the body and houses the heart and blood vessels. This system aids tissues in obtaining the necessary amounts of oxygen, nutrients, and waste removal. The body's cells and organs receive vital nutrients, hormones, oxygen, and other chemicals via the cardiovascular system. It is crucial in assisting the body in coping with the demands of stress, exercise, and activity. In addition to other things, it aids in maintaining body temperature.
Heart electrical activity, heartbeat rhythm, blood flow through the heart's chambers and valves, ease of blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart muscle, and the presence of tumours or structural abnormalities in the cardiovascular system can all be learned from cardiovascular diagnostic and screening tests. To better understand issues affecting the heart, new tests are constantly being developed. These consist of ailments, harm, and issues that exist from birth (congenital). To evaluate the progression of coronary artery disease and evidence of existing damage, a number of blood tests are available for examining cholesterol transport behaviour, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, lipoprotein little a, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, blood sugar control: fasting, after eating or averages using glycated albumen or haemoglobin, myoglobin, creatine kinase, troponin, brain-type natriure Many new physiologic indicators of atherosclerosis and heart health are being created, tested, and used in research.
The term "cardiovascular disease" (CVD) is used to refer generally to conditions that affect the heart or blood vessels. Unhealthy eating, inactivity, usage of tobacco products, and abusing alcohol are the main behavioural risk factors for heart disease and stroke. Individuals may experience elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, elevated blood lipids, as well as overweight and obesity as a result of behavioural risk factors. These "intermediate risk variables" can be assessed in primary care settings and point to an elevated risk of consequences like heart attack, stroke, and heart failure. Additionally, pharmacological therapy for diabetes, high blood lipids, and hypertension is required to lower cardiovascular risk and stop heart attacks and strokes in those who have these disorders.
Invasive, Non-invasive and Interventional cardiology are the three branches of cardiology. Open or minimally invasive procedures are used in invasive cardiology to identify and treat structural or electrical problems in the heart. These minimally invasive procedures include angioplasty and stenting. A soft, gooey coating called arterial plaque is made up of cholesterol, calcium, fat, and other components found in your blood. The blood flow could be hampered if your arteries are blocked with too much plaque. An angioplasty can be used in this situation. This procedure includes inserting a tiny balloon into your clogged vein to force plaque against the walls, improve blood flow, and assist your heart in returning to normal function. A cardiac stent, which is frequently done in conjunction with angioplasty, is a thin metal or plastic coil or tube that can keep a blocked vein open permanently. Cardiologist might advise any of these two operations if you have blocked veins.
A computerized tomography (CT) coronary angiogram is an imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply blood to the heart. A CT coronary angiogram uses a powerful X-ray machine to produce images of the heart and its blood vessels. The test is used to diagnose a variety of heart conditions. This quick but detailed and high-resolution scan shows your healthcare provider problems with your heart structure, valves, arteries, aorta and more. Cardiac CT uses advanced CT technology, with or without intravenous (IV) contrast (dye) to better visualize your heart structure and associated blood vessels. With multi-slice scanning, your healthcare provider can get high-resolution, 3D images of your moving heart and great vessels.
Nuclear cardiology studies use non-invasive techniques to assess myocardial blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart as well as visualize the size and location of a heart attack. Among the techniques of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging is the most widely used. A nuclear stress test uses a small amount of radioactive material (tracer) and an imaging machine to create pictures showing the blood flow to your heart. The test measures blood flow while you are at rest and during activity, showing areas with poor blood flow or damage in your heart.
disease is a general term that includes many types of heart problems. It's also called cardiovascular disease, which means heart and blood vessel disease. Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, but there are ways to prevent and manage many types of heart disease. The causes of heart disease depend on the type of disease. Some possible causes include lifestyle, genetics, infections, medicines, and other diseases.
The field of valvular heart disease (VHD) has undergone a remarkable transformation over the past ten years, partly due to the advancement and development of less invasive transcatheter techniques to valve repair or replacement. Numerous well-designed randomised studies have supported this change, although they have focused almost exclusively on equipment and methods. Valvular heart disease is a cardiovascular disease which involves the damage in any of the four valves i.e aortic, mitral, pulmonary and tricuspid valves. Aortic stenosis (AS), organic and ischemic (functional) mitral regurgitation, and tricuspid regurgitation are the most common valvular disorders in older adults.
The blood arteries that transport oxygen and nutrients throughout your body and eliminate waste from your tissues are affected by vascular disease (also known as vasculopathy). Plaque, which is composed of fat and cholesterol, slows or obstructs blood flow in your arteries and veins, causing common vascular issues. Changing one's lifestyle can frequently be helpful, but some people also require medicine or surgery.
- Cardiovascular System
- Diagnostics Tests in Cardiology
- Cardiovascular Diseases
- Invasive Cardiology
- Cardiac CT
- Nuclear Cardiology
- Cardiac Disease
- Valvular Heart Disease
- Vascular Disease
- Congenital Heart Disease
- Cardiovascular Pharmacology
- Pregnancy and Heart Disease
- Cardiothoracic Surgery
- Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
- Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease